The answer depends on who you ask and how you measure emissions. Since the first climate talks in the 1990s, officials have been debating which countries – developed and developing countries – are most responsible for climate change and should therefore reduce their emissions. The Paris Agreement contains a series of binding measures to monitor, verify and publicly report progress towards a country`s emissions reduction targets. Improving transparency rules applies a common framework to all countries, providing housing and support to nations that are not currently able to strengthen their systems over time. Gupta et al. (2007)  described the Kyoto commitments as “modest” in the first round and said they were implementing the effectiveness of the treaty. It was suggested that subsequent Kyoto commitments could be made more effective by measures to reduce emissions more, as well as by implementing policies to a greater share of global emissions.  In 2008, countries with a Kyoto ceiling accounted for less than one-third of annual global carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion.  Technology transfer It recognizes the need to accelerate the transfer of technology to developing and developing countries, using the technical and financial mechanisms available. Measures are being announced to strengthen the existing mechanism, which establishes the principles of incentive for development in developing countries on the basis of the technological needs of an emissions trajectory compatible with the 2oC target. Emissions reductions generated by the CDM and MOC can be used by Schedule I parties to meet their emission limitation commitments.  Emissions reductions by the CDM and MOC are both measured using a hypothetical emission base that would have occurred in the absence of a project to reduce emissions.
Emissions reductions generated by the CDM are called Certified Emission Reductions (REFs); The reductions produced by the JAI are called emission reduction units (ErUs). The reductions are called “credits” because they are emission reductions charged on a hypothetical emission basis.  Kyoto Protocol, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol [PDF], adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first legally binding climate treaty.